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In previous versions of PostgreSQL, table partitioning functionality could be supported through inheritance; for example, a table partition can be created monthly every hour and data can be saved in specific partitions.
PostgreSQL 10 and later support declarative partitioning. This document describes how to create partitions in advance or in real time based on written data.
Below are some popular schemas that allow PostgreSQL to automatically create partitioned tables.
Use Cases for Table Partition in PostgreSQL
In practical use cases of partitioned tables, the time field is often used as the partition key; for example, if the partition field type is timestamp then the partition method could be "list of values".
The structure of the table is as follows:
CREATE TABLE tab ( id bigint GENERATED ALWAYS AS IDENTITY, ts timestamp NOT NULL, data text ) PARTITION BY LIST ((ts::date)); CREATE TABLE tab_def PARTITION OF tab DEFAULT;
Partition creation is generally divided into the following two scenarios:
1. Scheduled partition creation
You can create partitions in advance with the help of a task scheduling tool. Common tools and partition creation methods are as follows:
Using system schedulers such as Crontab (Linux, Unix, etc.) and Task Scheduler (Windows)
Taking Linux as an example, create a partitioned table at 14:00 every day for the next day:
cat > /tmp/create_part.sh <<EOF dateStr=\$(date -d '+1 days' +%Y%m%d); psql -c "CREATE TABLE tab_\$dateStr (LIKE tab INCLUDING INDEXES); ALTER TABLE tab ATTACH PARTITION tab_\$dateStr FOR VALUES IN ('\$dateStr')"; EOF (crontab -l 2>/dev/null; echo "0 14 * * * bash /tmp/create_part.sh ") | crontab -
Using built-in schedulers such as pg_cron and pg_timetable
Taking pg_cron as an example, create a partitioned table at 14:00 every day for the next day:
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION create_tab_part() RETURNS integer LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$ DECLARE dateStr varchar; BEGIN SELECT to_char(DATE 'tomorrow', 'YYYYMMDD') INTO dateStr; EXECUTE format('CREATE TABLE tab_%s (LIKE tab INCLUDING INDEXES)', dateStr); EXECUTE format('ALTER TABLE tab ATTACH PARTITION tab_%s FOR VALUES IN (%L)', dateStr, dateStr); RETURN 1; END; $$; CREATE EXTENSION pg_cron; SELECT cron.schedule('0 14 * * *', $$SELECT create_tab_part();$$);
Using dedicated partition management extensions such as pg_partman
Taking pg_partman as an example, create a partitioned table every day for the next day:
CREATE EXTENSION pg_partman; SELECT partman.create_parent(p_parent_table => 'public.tab', p_control => 'ts', p_type => 'native', p_interval=> 'daily', p_premake => 1);
2. On-demand real-time partition creation
If you want to create partitions according to the need of data insertion, so you can determine whether there is data in a time range based on whether a partition exists, this generally can be implemented with triggers.
Note that there are two problems with this method:
Only PostgreSQL 13 and later provide BEFORE/FOR EACH ROW triggers for partitioned tables.
ERROR: "tab" is a partitioned table DETAIL: Partitioned tables cannot have BEFORE / FOR EACH ROW triggers.
When data is inserted, the partitioned table definition cannot be modified due to the table lock; that is, child tables cannot be attached. Therefore, another connection must be used to perform the ATTACH operation. Here, the LISTEN/NOTIFY mechanism can be used to ask another connection to modify the partition definition.
ERROR: cannot CREATE TABLE .. PARTITION OF "tab" because it is being used by active queries in this session Or ERROR: cannot ALTER TABLE "tab" because it is being used by active queries in this session
Trigger (implementing child table creation and NOTIFY)
CREATE FUNCTION part_trig() RETURNS trigger LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$ BEGIN BEGIN /* try to create a table for the new partition */ EXECUTE format('CREATE TABLE %I (LIKE tab INCLUDING INDEXES)', 'tab_' || to_char(NEW.ts, 'YYYYMMDD')); /* * tell listener to attach the partition * (only if a new table was created) */ EXECUTE format('NOTIFY tab, %L', to_char(NEW.ts, 'YYYYMMDD')); EXCEPTION WHEN duplicate_table THEN NULL; -- ignore END; /* insert into the new partition */ EXECUTE format('INSERT INTO %I VALUES ($1.*)', 'tab_' || to_char(NEW.ts, 'YYYYMMDD')) USING NEW; /* skip insert into the partitioned table */ RETURN NULL; END; $$; CREATE TRIGGER part_trig BEFORE INSERT ON TAB FOR EACH ROW WHEN (pg_trigger_depth() < 1) EXECUTE FUNCTION part_trig(); Code (implementing LISTEN and ATTACH for child tables) #!/usr/bin/env python3.9 # encoding:utf8 import asyncio import psycopg2 from psycopg2.extensions import ISOLATION_LEVEL_AUTOCOMMIT conn = psycopg2.connect('application_name=listener') conn.set_isolation_level(ISOLATION_LEVEL_AUTOCOMMIT) cursor = conn.cursor() cursor.execute(f'LISTEN tab;') def attach_partition(table, date): with conn.cursor() as cs: cs.execute('ALTER TABLE "%s" ATTACH PARTITION "%s_%s" FOR VALUES IN (\'%s\')' % (table, table, date, date)) def handle_notify(): conn.poll() for notify in conn.notifies: print(notify.payload) attach_partition(notify.channel, notify.payload) conn.notifies.clear() loop = asyncio.get_event_loop() loop.add_reader(conn, handle_notify) loop.run_forever()
This document describes two schemes for automatic partition creation as summarized below:
The solutions in the scheduled partition creation scenario are simple and easy to understand, but they depend on the schedule management mechanism of the system or extension and incur additional management costs during Ops and migration.
In the on-demand real-time partition creation scenario, the number of unnecessary partitions can be reduced according to the actual data pattern, but a later version (≥13) and an additional connection are required, making the scheme more complicated.
You can choose an appropriate automatic partition creation method based on your business conditions.
Need of System Scheduler or Extension Required
Need of Additional Connection Mechanism Required
Scheduled partition creation
On-demand real-time partition creation
PostgreSQL 13 or later